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Prevalence and Associated Factors of Metabolic Syndrome among Menopausal Women in a Tertiary Center, Malaysia

Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a condition that includes the presence of a cluster of risk factors specific for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The criteria used to aid the diagnosis of MetS includes abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hypertension or use of antihypertensive medication, elevated fasting blood glucose and other risk factors.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among postmenopausal women and its associated factors in a tertiary center in Malaysia

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study done among 411 postmenopausal women attending Gynaecology clinic and Family Medicine clinic in a tertiary center in Malaysia. Socio demographic data, reproductive profile, menopausal profile and medical history were obtained. Then waist circumference (WC), weight, height and blood pressure (BP) were also recorded. A fasting blood sample was obtained for serum glucose and lipid profile determinations. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of International Diabetes Federation.

Results: The mean age of participants was 57.2 + 6.9 years. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 36.7%. The risk of MetS increased with the presence of obstetrics history of hypertension (HPT) (odds ratio (OR) 2.64, 95% (CI) 1.25-5.62), previous usage of contraception (odds ratio (OR) 1.56, 95% (CI) 1.02-2.42), family history of HPT (odds ratio (OR) 1.71, 95% (CI) 1.13-2.59) and obesity (odds ratio (OR) 2.59, 95% (CI) 1.08-6.23).

Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women seeking gynaecologic and primary health care in the tertiary center Malaysia. The associated factors of MetS include previous obstetrics history of HPT, family history of HPT and obesity.

Author(s): Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain M.D., M.Med. (Obstetrics & Gynaecology), Habibah Abdul Hamid MBBS., M.Med. (Obstetrics & Gynaecology), Azidah Abdul Kadir M.D., M.Med. (Family Medicine), Kamarul Imran Musa M.D., M.Med.(Community Medicine), Shaiful Bahari Ismail MBBS., M.Med. (Family Medicine)

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